• In 2008, Morocco issued a privacy and personal data protection law (Law No. 09-08 relating to protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data). The law was implemented in 2009 with Implementation Decree no. 2-09-165.¹

  • The Moroccan Data Protection Authority (CNDP) was established in 2009.² In 2011, the Moroccan government launched data.gov.ma, a portal that offers free and open access to hundreds of data files for researchers, students, journalists, and other users.³

  • Between 2013 and 2015, Open Knowledge International (OKI) actively promoted the use of data and advocated for data standards worldwide. Morocco was among the nodes of this regional network. While Morocco's status in the OKI network has since become "hibernated," the country has joined the Code for Africa (CfA) continental network, which emphasizes the importance of open data ecosystems in the region.⁴

  • In 2019, the Ministry of National Education, Vocational Training, Higher Education and Scientific Research (MENFPESRS) launched the Al-Khawarizmi Programme in collaboration with the Ministry of Investment, Industry, Trade and Digital Economy (MIICEN), the ADD, and the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research (CNRST). The programme focuses on equipping professionals [OR] members of the workforce  with digital skills, supporting Research and Development (R&D) in AI and promoting innovation to foster a dynamic and thriving digital ecosystem for AI in Morocco.⁵

  • The MENFPESRS also established an R&D center in Casablanca, hosted by the National School of Mechanics and Electricity. The center is dedicated to investing in R&D and innovation and encouraging technology transfer in the field of AI and ICT.⁶

  • Additionally, a state-of-the-art Software Center was set up in Rabat Technopark in partnership with the National Institute of Telecommunication (INPT), the MIICEN, and the National School of Mechanics and Electricity (ENSEM). Like the R&D center in Casablanca, the Software Center focuses on investing in R&D and innovation to nurture an ecosystem that supports AI and digital transformation in Morocco.⁷

  • The first school of artificial intelligence in Africa, the Euromed School of Digital Engineering and Artificial Intelligence (EIDIA) was established at the Euromed University of Fez (UEMF) in 2019.⁸

  • In 2021, Morocco's Agency for Digital Development (ADD) began formulating a blueprint for the development of an AI ecosystem. The aim of this initiative is to create a conducive environment that fosters the growth and proliferation of AI while simultaneously identifying priority sectors within Morocco's economy. This endeavor entails promoting substantial investment in AI and R&D, developing an appropriate legal framework for the regulation of AI and associated technologies, and enhancing the skill sets of Morocco's labor force  to meet the demands of the rapidly evolving AI landscape.⁹

Legislation on the protection of personal data:

✔ Constitution

  • Article 24 of the 2011 Constitution:

"Everyone has the right to the protection of his or her private life."

  • Article 27 of the 2011 Constitution:

«... The right to information may only be restricted by law, with the aim of protecting everything related to national defense, protecting the internal and external security of the State, the private life of individuals, as well as preventing infringement of the fundamental freedoms and rights enshrined in this Constitution... ».

✔ Laws

  • 1026-97-2 of 27 Shawwal 1418 (February 25, 1998) relating  to the  general conditions for the exploitation of public telecommunications networks as amended  by Decree No. 2-05-771 of 6 Jumada II 1426 (July 13, 2005) and Decree No. 2-06-418 of Ramadan 17, 1427 (October 10,  2006). Article 05 thereof.

  • The Dahir  No. 1.09.15 of 22 Safar 1430 (February 18, 2009) implementing Law No. 08-09  on the protection of private persons vis-à-vis the processing of personal data.

  • Decree No. 2.09.165 of 25 Jumada I 1430 (May 21, 2009) implementing Law No. 08-09 on the protection of private persons vis-à-vis the processing of personal data.

✔ Other legal texts

  • Dahir No. 1.11.03 of 14 Rabi' al-Awwal 1432 (February 18, 2011) implementing Law No.  31-08 establishing measures for consumer protection.

  • Law 53-05 on the electronic exchange of legal data.

  • Law 24-96 on Posts and Telecommunications.

  • Code of Penal Procedure: Article 108 of the Code of Criminal Procedure:  Article 108 of the Code of Criminal Procedure stipulates in its first paragraph that calls and communications made by means of remote communication may not be captured, recorded, copied or seized.

  • Criminal Code Collection: The Chapters 442 to 445 of the Criminal Code as  well as Chapter 448 of the H

  • Law 03.07 on the disruption of the functioning of automated data processing systems. Chapter Ten of Part One of Book Three of the Criminal Code under the title Harm to automated data processing systems.

  • Press Law: Articles 38, 44 to 51 bis of the Press Law. The aforementioned articles criminalize the misdemeanors of insulting and defaming individuals or harming their private lives through the media.

  • Law No. 103.13 on combating violence against women. It also included special provisions for the protection of privacy, which were added to the Penal Code.

¹ “Law in Morocco.” DLA Piper Global Data Protection Laws of the World. Accessed May 10, 2023. https://www.dlapiperdataprotection.com/index.html?t=law&c=MA#:~:text=Morocco%E2%80%99s%20law%20governing%20privacy%20and,(together%20the%20DP%20Law)

² “National Committee.” DARTCreations. Accessed May 10, 2023. https://www.cndp.ma/ar/cndp/qui-sommes-nous/commision.html

³ Oubibi, Mohamed, Yueliang Zhou, Ayoub Oubibi, Antony Fute, and Atif Saleem. “The Challenges and Opportunities for Developing the Use of Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in North Africa: Case of Morocco.” SpringerLink, May 6, 2022. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-02447-4_9#Sec10

⁴ Rizk, Nagla, Salem, Nancy & Felsberger, Stefanie. (2019). Open Data Around the World: Middle East and North Africa. In T. Davies, S. Walker, M. Rubinstein & F. Perini (Eds.), The State of Open Data (pp. XXX-XXX). Cape Town and Ottawa: African Minds and International Development Research Centre.

⁵ “The Challenges of Artificial Intelligence for Moroccan Companies?”  IJARIIE. Accessed May 10, 2023.

⁶ Ibid

⁷ Ibid

⁸ Ibid

⁹ “Morocco: Strategy For Developing An AI Ecosystem.” OECD’s live repository of AI strategies & policies - OECD.AI, September 9, 2022. https://oecd.ai/en/dashboards/policy-initiatives/http:%2F%2Faipo.oecd.org%2F2021-data-policyInitiatives-27136



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